Maria Litynska-Zajac, Krystyna Wasylikowa




From the editor (Piotr Szmajda)
Preface (Maria Lityńska-Zając, Krystyna Wasylikowa)

Part one: Theoretical foundations of archaeobotany

I. Definition, subject and aims of archaeobotany
I.1. Subject of archaeobotany according to various authors
I.2. Archaeobotany in relation to other sciences
I.3. History of archaeobotanical studies in outline
I.3.1. European archaeobotany before World War II
I.3.2. Ethnobotanical background of American archaeobotany
I.3.3. The time after World War II
I.3.4. Outline of the history of archaeobotany in Poland
I.3.5. Main trends in modern archaeobotany

II. Plant remains as source-material in archaeobotany
II.1. Problems in taphonomy
II.2. Ways of preservation of plant macrofossils
II.3. Microscopic remains
II.4. Supplementary sources

III. Kind of archaeological site against a kind of plant material

IV. Dating of plant remains preserved in archaeological sites
IV.1. Direct and indirect dating
IV.2. Dating by stratigraphic and archaeological criteria
IV.3. Radiometric methods
IV.4. Dendrochronology
IV.5. Plant remains as the basis for dating archaeological features with the use of 14C and dendrochronological methods
IV.6. Archaeological chronology of Polish prehistory

V. Outline of the history of selected cultivated plants
V.1. Centres of plant domestication and origins of agriculture
V.2. Comments on taxonomy of cultivated plants
V.3. Properties of domesticates compared with their wild progenitors
V.4. Cereals
V.4.1. Diploid wheats
V.4.2. Tetraploid wheats
V.4.3. Hexaploid wheats
V.4.4. The oldest naked wheats known from archaeological sites
Barley Hordeum vulgare L. em. Lam.
V.4.6. Rye Secale cereale L.
V.4.7. Oats Avena sativa L.
V.4.8. Common millet Panicum miliaceum L.
V.4.9. Italian millet Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.
V.4.10. Buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum Moench
V.5. Pulses
V.6. Oil and fibre plants
V.7. Oleiferous plants and vegetables from the genus Brassica
V.8. Fleshy fruits and nuts
V.9. Vegetables and condiments

Part two: Field and laboratory methods

VI. Sampling and the problem of representativeness in archaeobotany (S. Kadrow)
VI.1. Dilemmas in excavation studies (lub Dilemmas in excavating)
VI.2. Bearing of sampling on archaeological and archaeobotanical studies
VI.3. Statistical sample and some other notions
VI.4. Sampling kinds in archaeobotany
VI.5. Sampling of landscape

VII. Sampling in archaeobotanical investigations
VII.1. Peculiar character of archaeobotanical field studies
VII.2. General principles, obligatory in sampling of all kinds of archaeobotanical material
VII.3. Field equipment
VII.4. Sampling for plant-macrofossil studies
VII.4.1. Sampling at water-logged sites
VII.4.2. Sampling at dry sites
VII.4.3. Practical guide for sampling at certain site types
VII.4.4. Field procedures used for processing samples of plant macroremains
VII.5. Sampling for pollen analysis
VII.5.1. Sampling from excavation
VII.5.2. Corings

VIII. Laboratory methods in macrofossil and pollen analyses
VIII.1. General equipment of archaeobotanical laboratory
VIII.2. Laboratory equipment used for sample processing
VIII.3. Initial processing of samples
VIII.4. Laboratory methods used in processing macrofossil samples
VIII.4.1. Sample maceration
Washing wet soil
VIII.4.1.2. Flotation of sandy soil containing charred remains
VIII.4.1.3. Extraction of dry remains from desert soil
VIII.4.2. Sorting of samples
VIII.5. Sample processing for pollen analysis
VIII.5.1. Rutine methods of sample maceration
VIII.5.1. Specific methods of sample maceration used for some sediment types

Part three: Methods of identification of plant remains and presentation of the results

IX. Macroscopic remains
IX.1. Principles of carpological analysis
IX.1.1. Introduction
IX.1.2. Description and documentation of the material
IX.1.2.1. Description of sample
IX.1.2.2. Description of plant remains
IX.1.3. Quantitative analysis of samples containing fruits and seeds
IX.1.4. Presentation of the results of carpological analysis
IX.2. Experimenting in archaeobotany
IX.2.1. The aims of experimentation in archaeobotany
IX.2.2. The influence of fossilization on the shape and anatomical structure of remains
IX.2.2.1. Artificial fossilization with the use of chemicals
IX.2.2.2. Experimenting with charring
IX.2.2.3. Experimenting with imprints
IX.2.2.4. Influence of fossilization on the structure of plant organs: conclusions
IX.2.3. The examples of testing the hypotheses
IX.2.3.1. The influence of charring on the composition of macrofossil assemblages
IX.2.3.2. Experimental farming: attempts at the reconstrution
IX.2.3.3. Examples of other experiments
IX.3. Identification of cereals recovered from archaeological sites in Poland
IX.3.1. Introduction
IX.3.2. Morphology of cereals
IX.3.3. Wheat identification
IX.3.3.1. Morphology of ears, spikelets and caryopses
IX.3.3.2. Description of wheat species occurring in Polish sites
IX.3.4. Barley identification
IX.3.5. Rye identification
IX.3.6. Identification of cultivated oat
IX.3.7. Common millet identification
IX.3.8. Italian millet identification
IX.4. Other cultivated plants occurring in archaeological sites
IX.5. Descritpion of fruits and seeds of some species of wild plants from archaeological sites in Poland
IX.6. The analysis of wood remains
IX.6.1. Introduction
IX.6.2. Role of taphonomical processes in the accumulation of wood in archaeological sites
IX.6.3. Presentation of the results of wood analysis
IX.6.4. Interpretation of wood remains
IX.6.5. Identification of subfossil wood
IX.6.5.1. Scheme of anatomical structure of wood
IX.6.5.2. Description of wood of trees and shrubs occurring in archaeological sites in Poland
IX.7. The analysis of plant impressions preserved in potsherds and daub
IX.7.1. Introduction
IX.7.2. Identification of impressions
IX.7.3. Presentation of results of the analysis of plant impressions
IX.7.4. Interpretation of results of the analysis of plant impressions

X. Identification of storage organs of plants being the source of food (L. Kubiak-Martens)
X.1. Introduction
X.2. Roots and tubers as food source
X.3. Morphology of vegetative storage organs
X.3.1. Storage organs developed from stems
X.3.2. Storage organs developed from roots
X.4. Anatomical structure of stem and root
X.5. Recognising and classifying charred parenchymatous particles while sorting plant material
X.6. Plant identification on the basis of charred parenchymatous tissues
X.7. Examples of charred remains of vegetative plant organs found in archaeological sites
X.8. Future perspectives of these studies

XI. Statistical inference and multivariate analyses in archaeobotany (A. Walanus, M. Zając)
XI.1. Preface
XI.2. Reasons for the need of statistical inference
XI.2.1. Introduction
XI.2.2. E
xample of statistical inference – number of grains
XI.2.3. Probability distribution
XI.2.3.1. Probability distributions
XI.2.3.2. Poisson probability distribution
XI.2.3.3. Standard deviation
XI.2.3.4. Standard deviation in Poisson distribution
XI.2.3.5. Number of significant numerals
XI.2.3.6. Measurements and counts
XI.2.3.7. Normal distribution
Testing statistical hypotheses using normal distribution
XI.2.4. Series of measurements
XI.2.4.1. Homogeneity of results
XI.2.4.2. The average
Standard deviation
Presicion of the average value
XI.2.4.5. Comparison of two averages value, test t
XI.2.5. Formalism in testing statistical hypotheses
XI.2.6. Correlation
An example of elementary calculations and statistical inference
XI.3. Multivariate analyses
Classification methods
XI.3.1.1. Cluster analysis (taxonomy)
XI.3.1.2. Discriminant analysis
Methods used to study the structure of data
XI.3.2.1. Factor analysis and the principal components analysis
XI.3.2.2. Correspondence analysis
Multidimensional scaling
XI.3.3. Symbolic classification
XI.4. Conclusions

XII. Pollen analysis in archaeobotanical investigations (K. Wasylikowa)
XII.1. The use of pollen analysis to study natural and anthropogenic deposits: theoretical grounds
XII.2. Pollen analysis in studying archaeological sites
XII.3. Counting pollen spectra and presentation of the results of pollen analysis
XII.4. Pollen analysis of dry sites
XII.4.1. Fossil soils
Other sources of palynological material encountered at archaeological sites
XII.5. Pollen analysis of cave deposits
XII.6. Pollen analysis of town layers
XII.7. Analysis of excrements and contents of human and animal alimentary canals
XII.7.1. Coprolites
XII.7.2. Cesspits, stables
Contents of alimentary canal of human dead bodies

XIII. The use of phytholith analysis in archaeobotany (M. Polcyn, I. Polcyn, K. Wasylikowa)
XIII.1. What the phytholiths are
XIII.2. History of phytholith studies
XIII.3. Phytholith morphology and identification possibility
XIII.4. Origin of phytholiths in sediments
XIII.5. The significance of phytholith analysis for archaeological studies
XIII.6. Microscopic observations
XIII.7. Presentation of results
XIII.8. Sampling for phytholiths analysis
XIII.9 Laboratory processing of samples for phytholith analysis
XIII.10 Concluding remarks

XIV. Use of diatoms in archaeology
XIV.1. Introduction
Regional palaeoecological reconstructions
XIV.3. Diatoms in (the) examination of artefacts
XIV.4. Practical pieces of advice

XV. Examination of starch grains preserved in archaeological sites

XVI. Role of chemotaxonomy and molecular biology in the identification of plant remains and phylogenetic investigations (A. Joachimiak)
XVI.1. Theoretical bases
XVI.1.1. Chemotaxonomy
XVI.1.2. Molecular studies
XVI.2. Analysis of fossil DNA
XVI.2.1. Replication – PCR method
XVI.2.2. Further analyses
XVI.2.3. Main characters of fossil DNA
XVI.2.4. Choice of DNA
XVI.2.5. Choice of sequence
XVI.3. Discussion of some results of investigations
XVI.3.1. Maize
XVI.4. Concluding remarks

XVII. Application of physicochemical analyses in archaeobotany (J.J. Langer)
XVII.1. Introduction
Optical spectroscopy
XVII.3. Infra red spectroscopy
XVII.4. Magnetic resonance methods
XVII.5. Mass spectrometry MS
XVII.6. Thermal analysis methods
XVII.7. Chromatography methods
XVII.8. Activation methods
XVII.9. Electron microscopy: TEM, SEM, and microanalysis

Part four: Interpretation of the results of archaeobotanical investigations

XVIII. Reconstruction of plant communities (M. Lityńska-Zając)
XVIII.1. Methodical grounds
XVIII.2. Syntaxonomic analysis of archaeobotanical materials
XVIII.2.1. The significance of phytosociological method in archaeobotany
XVIII.2.2. The application of phytosociology to the interpretation of subfossil material
XVIII.2.2.1. Reconstruction of individual palaeophytocenoses
XVIII.2.2.2. The analysis of dispersed material
XVIII.2.2.3. Possible changes of synecological status of species
XVIII.3. Ecological index numbers
XVIII.3.1. Introduction
Ecological indices according to Zarzycki
XVIII.3.3. The use of ecological numbers in archaeobotany
XVIII.4. Functional interpretation of botanical surveys
XVIII.4.1. Theoretical foundations
XVIII.4.2. Examples of the use of FIBS method
XVIII.5. The analysis of synanthropic flora based on archaeobotanical material

XIX. Reconstruction of economic processes on botanical bases (M. Lityńska-Zając)
XIX.1. Field weeds as a source of information about the ways of plant cultivation
XIX.1.1. Sowing time of cereal and their cultivation
XIX.1.1.1. Outline of the problem
XIX.1.1.2. Biological spectra of modern field weeds
XIX.1.1.3. Biological spectra of prehistoric field weeds
XIX.1.2. Harvest time in the light of phenology of flowering and setting fruits
XIX.1.3. The way of harvesting
XIX.1.3.1. The hight distribution of weeds in modern fields
XIX.1.3.2. The way of cereal harvesting in the light of the analysis of weeds from  archaeobotanical material
XIX.1.3.3. Examples of archaeobotanical sites which provided material for the discussion of harvesting ways
XIX.1.4. The degree of cereal grain contamination with weeds
XIX.1.5. Field rotation, monocultures, mixed sowing
XIX.2. Reconstruction of farming structure on the basis of cultivated plants preserved in archaeobotanical sites
XIX.2.1. Introduction
Methodical remarks
XIX.2.3. Reconstruction of farming structure at the level of one site
XIX.2.4. Reconstruction of farming structure at the level of one region
XIX.2.5. Reconstruction of farming structure at the level of the whole Poland
XIX.3. Forage of domestic animals on the basis of archaeobotanical material
XIX.3.1. Introduction
Leaf forage
XIX.3.3. Green forage and hay
XIX.4. The mechanism of transition from gathering to cultivation of plants: Abu Hureyra case study
XIX.5. The yearly schedule of farm activities reconstructed from plant phenology
XIX.6. Archaeobotanical material as source of information about the significance of plants for humans in prehistoric times

XX. The significance of archaeobotanical investigations for the other scientific disciplines

Index of Latin plant names
Index of Polish plant names
Notes about the authors